DNA Genealogy

DNA genealogy simply means a genealogy DNA test. In a quest to determine genealogical relationships and ancestral ethnicity this DNA ancestry test looks at certain locations of a person’s genomes. It gives results about other people you might be related to. DNA genealogy does not give information about diseases or medical conditions.

DNA genealogy procedure involves the submitting of a DNA sample. This can be done by ordering a home test kit through independent DNA test supplier, collecting a test DNA sample which is by cheek-scraping, known to some as buccal swab.  Some other methods are chewing gum, spit-cups, mouthwash. The sample is then sent to a testing lab after collection.

Three major types of tests are available namely, Y-DNA, Autosomal and X-DNA, mtDNA.

Y-DNA takes a look at y-chromosome inherited from father to son. To explore their direct paternallines, it can only be taken by males.

Taking a look at chromosomes 1-22 and X is the autosomal tests. Inherited from both parents and all recent ancestors is the autosomes which are chromosomes 1-22. Following a special inheritance pattern is the X-chromosome. With this kind of testing, ethnicity estimates are included often.

Taking a look at the mitochondrial, which is inherited from mother to child is the mtDNA. It can be used to explore an individual’s direct maternalline.

These DNA genealogy, Y-DNA and mtDNA can’t be used for ethnicity estimates. But they can be used to find a person’s haplogroup distributed unevenly geographically. Haplogroups by continent or ethnicity have often been labeled by direct to consumer DNA test companies. These labels though might be speculative or misleading.

Autosomal DNA testing and what is tested? Containing the twenty-two pairs of chromosomes not involved in determining your sex is the autosomal DNA.

New offspring receive one set of chromosomes from each parent in autosomal DNA and it recombines each generation.

These chromosomes are inherited equally and exactly from both parents, roughly equally from grandparents to about three times great grandparents. The ratio of markers transferred to a progenitor or new generation decreases by half, this means that a person inherits half their marker from each of the immediate parents likewise a quarter of their genetic marker will come from their grandparents. In that same order, they will inherit about eight genetic markers from each of the great grandparent. Beyond the fourth generation, genetic marker inheritances become more random and less equal. DNA genealogy generally may test about 700,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms(SNP) it can change at a single point in genetic code.

Matching other individuals is the major component of an autosomal DNA genealogy. It can be projected that they share a segment of DNA at that part of their genomes in a case where two persons share in common a number of consecutive SNPs. These two persons are considered to be a match if the segment is longer than a threshold set by the testing company.

 

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